We have learned in the last tutorial, about Reference Variable in PHP. Now, we will discuss operators in PHP.
PHP Operators:
Simple answer can be given using expression 2+ 5 is equal to 7. Here 2 and 5 are called operands and + is called operator. PHP language supports following type of operators.
Types of Operators:
- Arithmetic Operators
- Comparison Operators
- Logical (or Relational) Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Incrementing and Decrementing Operators
- Conditional (or ternary) Operators
Arithmetic Operators:
The arithmetic operators are used to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc. Here’s a complete list of PHP’s arithmetic operators.
Operator |
Description |
Example |
Result |
+ | Addition | $x + $y | Sum of $x and $y. |
– | Subtraction | $x – $y | Difference of $x and $y. |
* | Multiplication | $x * $y | Product of $x and $y. |
/ | Division | $x / $y | Quotient of $x and $y. |
% | Modulus | $x % $y | Remainder of $x divided by $y. |
Example:
<?php
$x = 10;
$y = 4;
echo($x + $y); // 0utputs: 14
echo($x - $y); // 0utputs: 6
echo($x * $y); // 0utputs: 40
echo($x / $y); // 0utputs: 2.5
echo($x % $y); // 0utputs: 2
?>
Comparison Operators:
The comparison operators are used to compare two values in a Boolean form.
Operator | Name | Example | Result |
== | Equal | $x == $y | True if $x is equal to $y |
=== | Identical | $x === $y | True if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type |
!= | Not equal | $x != $y | True if $x is not equal to $y |
<> | Not equal | $x <> $y | True if $x is not equal to $y |
!== | Not identical | $x !== $y | True if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type |
< | Less than | $x < $y | True if $x is less than $y |
> | Greater than | $x > $y | True if $x is greater than $y |
>= | Greater than or equal to | $x >= $y | True if $x is greater than or equal to $y |
<= | Less than or equal to | $x <= $y | True if $x is less than or equal to $y |
Example:
<?php
$x = 25;
$y = 35;
$z = "25";
var_dump($x == $z); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x === $z); // Outputs: boolean false
var_dump($x != $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x !== $z); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x < $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x > $y); // Outputs: boolean false
var_dump($x <= $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x >= $y); // Outputs: boolean false
?>
Logical Operators:
The logical operators are typically used to combine conditional statements.
Operator | Name | Example | Result |
and | And | $x and $y | True if both $x and $y are true |
or | Or | $x or $y | True if either $x or $y is true |
xor | Xor | $x xor $y | True if either $x or $y is true, but not both |
&& | And | $x && $y | True if both $x and $y are true |
|| | Or | $x || $y | True if either $$x or $y is true |
! | Not | !$x | True if $x is not true |
Example
<?php
$year = 2014;
// Leap years are divisible by 400 or by 4 but not 100
if(($year % 400 == 0) || (($year % 100 != 0) && ($year % 4 == 0))){
echo "$year is a leap year.";
} else{
echo "$year is not a leap year.";
}
?>
Assignment Operators:
The assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.
Operator | Description | Example | Is The Same As |
= | Assign | $x = $y | $x = $y |
+= | Add and assign | $x += $y | $x = $x + $y |
-= | Subtract and assign | $x -= $y | $x = $x – $y |
*= | Multiply and assign | $x *= $y | $x = $x * $y |
/= | Divide and assign quotient | $x /= $y | $x = $x / $y |
%= | Divide and assign modulus | $x %= $y | $x = $x % $y |
Example:
<?php
$x = 15;
echo $x; // Outputs: 15
$x = 15;
$x += 30;
echo $x; // Outputs: 45
$x = 30;
$x -= 20;
echo $x; // Outputs: 10
$x = 5;
$x *= 20;
echo $x; // Outputs: 100
$x = 100;
$x /= 20;
echo $x; // Outputs: 5
$x = 100;
$x %= 15;
echo $x; // Outputs: 10
?>
Incrementing and Decrementing Operators:
Operator | Name | Effect |
++$x | Pre-increment | Increments $x by one, then returns $x |
$x++ | Post-increment | Returns $x, then increments $x by one |
–$x | Pre-decrement | Decrements $x by one, then returns $x |
$x– | Post-decrement | Returns $x, then decrements $x by one |
Example
<?php
$x = 5;
echo ++$x; // Outputs: 6
echo $x; // Outputs: 6
$x = 10;
echo $x++; // Outputs: 10
echo $x; // Outputs: 11
$x = 15;
echo --$x; // Outputs: 14
echo $x; // Outputs: 14
$x = 10;
echo $x--; // Outputs: 10
echo $x; // Outputs: 9
?>
Conditional Operator:
There is one more operator called conditional operator. This first evaluates an expression for a true or false value and then execute one of the two given statements depending upon the result of the evaluation.
Operator | Description | Example |
? : | Conditional Expression | If Condition is true ? Then value X : Otherwise value Y |
Example
<?php
$a = 10;
$b = 20;
/* If condition is true then assign a to result otheriwse b */
$result = ($a > $b ) ? $a :$b;
echo "TEST1 : Value of result is $result<br/>";
/* If condition is true then assign a to result otheriwse b */
$result = ($a < $b ) ? $a :$b;
echo "TEST2 : Value of result is $result<br/>";
?>
| Also Read | PHP Data Types
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